Background

In 1932, the construction of a building to confine the prisoners called House of Detention was commenced by the German engineers and designers upon the order of Reza Shah. The structure was completed in 1937. From the beginning of its construction, this structure had several protective layers which made it impossible for the prisoners to escape. All the walls and angles were designed in broken geometric forms in a way that no angle was clearly detectable and that there was no way out for the prisoners.
Another reason for designing the broken geometric walls and angles was to create a natural acoustic mode to make any penetration of sound impossible. So, the woes and cries of the prisoners were stifled within the walls of the prison.
These characteristics sufficed to turn this place into a horrendous prison in which the most abominable and merciless tortures were inflicted upon the detainees. This detention center later continued to function under the names ‘temporary prison’, ‘women’s prison’ and the ‘joint committee detention center’.
In those days, the system of intelligence-security for intelligence collection from the target country did not exist and Reza Shah obtained all required intelligence from the security police later to be known as shahrbani.
At all events, the repression of the dissidents and critics of the ruling regime was still in progress inside the country and the security system of Reza Shah seized every opportunity and every person to suppress the protesters; among such people was a notorious man known as Dr Ahmadi who had a little knowledge of medicine and killed the dissidents by giving them poisonous or air injection..
Following the year 1941 and with the coming to power of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, some new changes took place as to crush the dissents of the regime and the traditional system was replaced by advanced ones. Towards the late fifties, Reza Shah set up a secret police called Kuk.
Pursuant to the 1953 coup, the Americans decided to use Iran as their regional base. So, the idea of establishing SAVAK (Security and intelligence Organization) was proposed by ten American counselors in 1956 and approved by the then Parliament. Eventually, in 1957, the SAVAK was established with a one-page bylaw and myriad authorities.
The SAVAK members were trained by US and British intelligence agencies and later by Israeli security agents.
In the same period, at the request of Shapur Jay (the British representative in Iran) who was highly favored by the British queen, it was determined that General Fardoust take a trip to England with a view to receive proper training. Upon returning from England, he started a special intelligence book in which 500 to 600 pages of report were squeezed into two or three pages and brought to the attention of the Shah every day.
According to the agreements, two copies of these pieces of intelligence should be sent to the US and British embassies in Tehran. The implication is that the shah wielded but little influence in making decisions and that he had the slightest authority.
In the seventies, the Israeli counselors took active roles in training the SAVAK agents.